United States, the September 11 2001 Attacks
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
a. Were the terrorist acts carried out on 11 September 2001 on the territory of the United States acts of war? Was the United States involved in an armed conflict against those who carried out these acts? Were they acts that triggered an armed conflict? From this viewpoint, is IHL applicable to these acts? Are these acts not covered by other branches of international law? Which ones? Or by domestic criminal law? Can a terrorist act constitute an armed conflict only when it causes a very large number of civilian victims, as was the case for the acts committed on 11 September (over 3,000 deaths)? Did the act of terrorism carried out against the World Trade Center in New York on 26 February 1993, which resulted in six deaths and injuries to approximately 1,000 persons, constitute an armed conflict?
b. Can the questions in point 1.a. be answered without knowing who the perpetrators of the acts were? What would your answers be if the perpetrators were de facto or de jure agents of a State? Of a terrorist group? Of a terrorist group supported by a State? Of a terrorist group finding itself under the effective control of a State? Under the overall control of a State? Of a terrorist group supported by a government not recognized internationally? Does the fact that these acts were launched on US soil influence your answer? Does it matter whether the authorities harbouring this terrorist group were or were not aware that it was going to carry out such acts?
c. Is IHL applicable to any conflict between the United States and a terrorist group, if the latter is not acting on behalf of a State? What is the definition of armed conflict? Of international armed conflict? Of non-international armed conflict? Are the acts of terrorism of 11 September covered by the law of non-international armed conflicts? And the fight of the United States against the terrorist groups?
a. Is terrorism a matter for IHL? If these acts are considered to have been committed in time of war, were they violations of IHL? War crimes? What does IHL have to say about terrorism? (GC IV, Art. 33(1); P I, Art. 51(2); P II, Arts 4(2)(d) and 13(2))
b. If these acts are considered to have been committed in time of peace, were they crimes against humanity? What are the elements of a crime against humanity? (ICC Statute, Art. 7; See The International Criminal Court)
a. To what extent can the United States react to these terrorist acts? Did these acts entail the applicability of Art. 51 of the UN Charter on self-defence? What happens when the perpetrators are not the agents of a State? If the State harbouring the perpetrators of these acts has been identified, can the United States pursue the perpetrators by intervening militarily in that State, on grounds of the right of self-defence? Even if the State did not have overall control over the perpetrators? What happens if the members of the organization that planned and implemented these acts are scattered throughout a large number of States all over the planet?
b. How would you characterize the conflict if the United States used armed force to destroy terrorist bases or camps or to kill members of a terrorist organization on the territory of a State that gave its consent to such a military intervention? If the State in question did not give its consent?
c. Can it be held that since 11 September 2001 the United States has been involved in a fight against terrorism constituting a single armed conflict within the meaning of IHL? Or rather has it been involved in a series of armed conflicts taking place wherever US forces intervene militarily? What are the consequences in terms of applicability of IHL to the various actions taken in connection with the fight against terrorism? Is it not rather the case that, when there are no armed hostilities, the fight against terrorism is a vast international police operation to which domestic and international criminal law not IHL are applicable?
d. Do all the persons arrested and detained in connection with the fight against terrorism belong to one of the categories of detainees provided for under IHL? Could they be prisoners of war? Protected civilians? Only if they were arrested in the context of an international armed conflict? (GC III, Art. 4; GC IV, Arts 2 and 4)
4. Could the act of terrorism committed against the Pentagon, near Washington, D.C., be lawful within the meaning of IHL, inasmuch as the building could be considered a military objective? Would this act be unlawful under IHL inasmuch as it was committed by means of a civilian airliner? Inasmuch as the attackers were disguised as civilians? Inasmuch as a large number of civilians were victims of the attack? Would it be an act of perfidy under IHL? (P I, Art. 37(1)(c))
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME] and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!
Tired of getting an average grade in all your school assignments, projects, essays, and homework? Try us today for all your academic schoolwork needs. We are among the most trusted and recognized professional writing services in the market.
We provide unique, original and plagiarism-free high quality academic, homework, assignments and essay submissions for all our clients. At our company, we capitalize on producing A+ Grades for all our clients and also ensure that you have smooth academic progress in all your school term and semesters.
High-quality academic submissions, A 100% plagiarism-free submission, Meet even the most urgent deadlines, Provide our services to you at the most competitive rates in the market, Give you free revisions until you meet your desired grades and Provide you with 24/7 customer support service via calls or live chats.