Thread and Process Scheduling Algorithms
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Thread and Process Scheduling Algorithms
In computer operating systems, scheduling algorithms are used to determine which process or thread should be executed next by the CPU. This is necessary because CPUs can only execute one task at a time, so the scheduling algorithm must decide which task to execute next in order to make the most efficient use of CPU resources.
There are various scheduling algorithms used by different operating systems, but they all aim to achieve similar goals: maximizing CPU utilization, minimizing response time, maximizing throughput, and minimizing overhead. Here, we will discuss the two main types of scheduling algorithms: process scheduling and thread scheduling.
Process Scheduling Algorithms:
Process scheduling algorithms are used to schedule processes, which are instances of executing programs. The goal of process scheduling is to ensure that all processes get a fair share of CPU time, while also maximizing system performance. There are several process scheduling algorithms, including:
First-Come, First-Served (FCFS):
In FCFS scheduling, the process that arrives first is executed first. It is a simple and easy-to-implement algorithm, but it can result in long waiting times for processes with large burst times. This algorithm is not suitable for time-sharing systems.
Shortest Job First (SJF):
In SJF scheduling, the process with the shortest burst time is executed first. This algorithm is effective in reducing average waiting time, but it requires knowledge of the burst time of each process, which may not be available in all cases.
In priority scheduling, each process is assigned a priority based on its importance. Processes with higher priorities are executed first. This algorithm is effective in ensuring that important processes are given priority, but it can lead to starvation of low-priority processes.
Round Robin (RR):
In round-robin scheduling, each process is given a fixed amount of CPU time (called a time slice or quantum), and the CPU switches to the next process in the queue after the time slice is over. This algorithm ensures that no process waits too long, but it can result in high context switching overhead.
Thread Scheduling Algorithms:
Thread scheduling algorithms are used to schedule threads, which are lightweight processes that share the same memory space as their parent process. The goal of thread scheduling is similar to that of process scheduling: to ensure that all threads get a fair share of CPU time, while also maximizing system performance. Some of the commonly used thread scheduling algorithms are:
In priority-based scheduling, each thread is assigned a priority based on its importance. Threads with higher priorities are executed first. This algorithm is effective in ensuring that important threads are given priority, but it can lead to starvation of low-priority threads.
In round-robin scheduling, each thread is given a fixed amount of CPU time (called a time slice or quantum), and the CPU switches to the next thread in the queue after the time slice is over. This algorithm ensures that no thread waits too long, but it can result in high context switching overhead.
Multi-level Feedback Queue (MLFQ):
In MLFQ scheduling, threads are assigned to different priority levels, and each level has its own queue. Threads with higher priorities are executed first, and threads that wait for a long time are moved to a higher priority queue. This algorithm is effective in reducing the average waiting time for threads.
In conclusion, scheduling algorithms are a vital part of operating systems, and they play a critical role in maximizing system performance while ensuring that all processes and threads get a fair share of CPU time. The choice of scheduling algorithm depends on various factors, including system requirements, workload characteristics, and the available resources.
Thread and Process Scheduling Algorithms
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