The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 Discussion Essay
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 Discussion Essay
Can’t testing be limited to techniques that don’t use whole animals? The Society of Toxicology joins other researchers and organizations that seek to obtain validated scientific information while minimizing the number of animals used in
research. One way is by using in vitro tests, laboratory tests using cell or organ cultures rather than whole organisms. In other cases, organisms such as worms or bacteria are used instead of mammals. Computer models can also be developed
to predict outcomes of testing. However, each of these methods provides limited information that applies to a very specific test situation and may not fully anticipate the results in a complicated organism (such as humans) with many
interacting organ systems. It also takes time to develop methods and prove that they are suitable replacements for other accepted methods. Fifteen U.S. agencies are working together as the Interagency Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternate Methods (ICCVAM) to establish criteria for scientific validity and regulatory acceptance of new tests. So far, two such tests, the murine local lymph node assay and the dermal corrosivity test, have been recognized as alternatives to replace some whole animal tests. Internationally, similar reviews of proposed methods are in progress.
Will we need animals in the future? Yes, animals will continue to be important agents in toxicology studies as new chemicals, combinations and concerns are studied. At a minimum, whole animal testing will still be needed to validate the results of methods that do not use whole animals and as a last protective step before exposure of humans and animals to potentially dangerous substances.
The future promises many exciting ways to predict and quantify human susceptibility to agents causing specific molecular alterations. With the entire sequence of the human genome now available for study, in the coming years specific human
gene mutations may be induced and quantified in cell culture, thus implying that these same genes may be susceptible after, say, environmental exposures of a person to a particular chemical. Using organisms into which human genes have
been incorporated (transgenic systems), exposure and consequent change in expression of these specific genes may be analyzed. Information about the dose-response in the whole animal may then be compared to actual incidence of genetic
variation in exposed human populations. Such methods will enable the scientist to use hard experimental evidence to predict human diseases caused by genes mutated by environmental exposures to chemicals and their metabolic products.
These methods will also enable better treatment of diseases by targeting medicines for the best response with lowest toxicity based on the patient’s genetic makeup.
Toxicology is part of the solution! Toxicology helps sustain the high-quality of life attributable directly to the appropriate use of chemicals. Toxicologists will continue to play an important role in defining the conditions of use that permit us to enjoy a high standard of living. For humane, ethical, scientific and economic reasons research animals will be used only when necessary and in the lowest numbers scientifically possible. However, the responsible use of animals in research will continue to be required to protect human and animal health and to safeguard the environment.
❛ Scientifically-valid research designed to reduce, refine or replace the need for laboratory animals is encouraged. ❜ SOT Animals in Research Public Policy Statement
Selected Other Research Societies and Groups American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) — www.aalas.org American Association of Poison Control Centers — www.aapcc.org American Physiological Society (APS) —
www.the-aps.org/index.htm American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) — www.avma.org Americans for Medical Progress (AMP) — www.amprogress.org Association for Assessment & Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care
International (AAALAC) — www.aaalac.org Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) — www.ccac.ca/en/CCAC_Main.htm Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) — dels.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarhome/index.shtml Johns Hopkins Center for
Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) — caat.jhsph.edu National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) — www.nabr.org Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) — www.primr.org Scientist Center for Animal Welfare
(SCAW) — www.scaw.com States United for Biomedical Research — www.statesforbiomed.org (Check this web site for the state biomedical society in your region.)
Selected References The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-544) as amended by the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-579); 1976 Amendments to the Animal Welfare Act (P.L. 94-279); the Food Security Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198), Subtitle F (Animal Welfare PL99198); and the Food and Agriculture Conservation and Trade Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-624), Section 2503, Protection of Pets (PL101624).
Rules and regulations pertaining to implementation are published in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Chapter 1, Subchapter A (Animal Welfare). Available from: Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care APHIS, USDA — www.aphis.usda.gov/ac
USDA/APHIS Final Rule Amending the Definition of Animal — a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/06jun20041800/edocket.access.gpo.gov/2004/pdf/04-12693.pdf
USDA/APHIS Animal Welfare Regulations and Standard for Birds, Rats & Mice — www.aphis.usda.gov/ac/rmbanpr.pdf
USDA Animal Welfare Information Center — www.nal.usda.gov/awic/index.html
The Importance of Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Public Health Services statement. 1994 — www.the-aps.org/pa/humane/pa_phspolcy.htm
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1996 or succeeding revised editions. — www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/labrats
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Animal Welfare Information Center, United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library — www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/noawicpubs/educ.htm
American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine Public Statement: Medical Records for Animals Used in Research, Teaching and Testing — aclam.org/PDF/pub_med_records_2.pdf
Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. PHS, DHHS, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, 1996, amended 2002 — www.grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm
Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1992 — fermat.nap.edu/books/0309042755/html/R1.html
European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes. Council of Europe, ETS No. 123, 1986 — conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/treaties/html/123.htm
Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals. CCAC (Canadian Council on Animal Care) Vol. 1, 2nd ed. Edited by E. D. Olfert, B. M. Cross, and A. A. McWilliam. Ontario, Canada: Canadian Council on Animal Care, 1993. 211 pp. — www.ccac.ca/en/CCAC_Programs/Guidelines_Policies/GUIDES/ENGLISH/toc_v1.htm
National Association of Biomedical Research Animal Law Web site — www.nabr.org/AnimalLaw
National Library of Medicine, Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing — toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/altbib.html
Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) — iccvam.niehs.nih.gov
European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) — ecvam.jrc.cec.eu.int/index.htm
Be sure to check the Society of Toxicology Web Site at www.toxicology.org for additional relevant links.
For Further Information
The Society of Toxicology 1821 Michael Faraday Drive Suite 300 Reston, VA 20190 Phone: (703) 438-3115 Fax: (703) 438-3113 E-mail: email@example.com Web Site: www.toxicology.org
All text and graphics are ©2006 by the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. No text or graphics may be copied or used without written permission from the Society of Toxicology. For further information, please contact SOT headquarters.
The Importance of Animals in Research • Research involving laboratory animals is necessary to ensure and enhance human and animal
health and protection of the environment.
In the absence of human data, research with experimental animals is the most reliable means of detecting important toxic properties of chemical substances and for estimating risks to human and environmental health.
Research animals must be used in a responsible manner.
Scientifically-valid research designed to reduce, refine or replace the need for laboratory animals is encouraged.
SOT Animals in Research Public Policy Statement 1999
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APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. 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The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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