SOT Promote Responsible Use of Animals
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SOT Promote Responsible Use of Animals
How does SOT promote responsible use of animals? Position on Use of Animals—The Society of
Toxicology (SOT) is a professional and scholarly organization of 5,000 scientists from academic institutions, government and industry representing the great variety of scientists practicing toxicology in the U.S. and around the world. The Society is dedicated to supporting the creation of sound scientific information that reduces uncertainty in assessing risks to human health and the environment. Reducing uncertainty in risk assessment benefits everyone through improved decision-making that protects the health of people, animals and their environment. The SOT believes that animal research is necessary for the protection of humans and other organisms (see “Position Statement Regarding the Use of Animals in Toxicology”), and that the welfare of research animals is of paramount importance.
All applicants for membership in the Society must indicate that they will abide by the SOT Code of Ethics, which states that members will “observe the spirit as well as the letter of law, regulations and ethical standards with regard to the welfare of humans and animals involved in my experimental procedures.” In addition, those who submit an abstract for presentation at the Society’s meetings must conduct their research in accordance with the “Guiding Principles in the Use of Animals in Toxicology” (see guidelines on previous page).
Good science requires that animals used in research are healthy and well cared for, and that pain and distress to the animals is minimized. In addition to ethical concerns, there are scientific reasons for this position. It is well known that altering an animal’s state of health (e.g., inducing stress or pain) can alter the physiology of the animal and the outcome of an experiment.
Recognition of accomplishments in promoting animal welfare The Society of Toxicology recognizes toxicologists whose research innovations promote the welfare of animals, as well as individuals whose efforts increase the public understanding of the use of animals in toxicology research.
The Society of Toxicology Enhancement of Animal Welfare Award is presented annually to a member of the Society in recognition of the contribution made to the advancement of toxicological science through the development and application of methods that replace, refine or reduce the need for experimental animals. This award recognizes outstanding and significant contributions made by members of the Society of Toxicology to the scientifically sound and responsible use of animals in research. The achievement recognized may be either a seminal piece of work or a long-term contribution to toxicological science and animal welfare.
The Society of Toxicology Award for Contributions to Public Awareness of the Importance of Animals in Toxicology Research is presented annually to an individual or organization in recognition of the contributions made to the public understanding of the role and importance of experimental animals in toxicological science. This award is important because it encourages and recognizes activities enhancing public understanding of, and appreciation for, the crucial benefits to humans, animals and the environment that result from the use of animals in toxicological research. This award may be for either a single activity or a longer-term contribution to public understanding of the necessity of the use of animals in toxicological research.
Guidelines for both awards are found on the Society’s Web site (www.toxicology.org), and the application deadline is in October of the year preceding the award.
❛ Research animals must be used in a responsible manner. ❜ SOT Animals in Research Public Policy Statement
What standards regulate animal welfare? Around the world, animal welfare legislation sets the standards for the proper care and treatment of research animals. For example, in the European Union the European Animal Welfare Directive (Council Directive 86/609/EEC) guides animal welfare. In the United States, the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (P.L. 89-544) and the Health Research Extension Act (P.L. 99-158) define standards for the proper care and treatment of laboratory animals.
The AWA regulates the use of dogs, cats, primates, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits and farm animals (and other animals, as the Secretary of Agriculture may determine) for use in for research, testing and teaching. Originally passed in 1966 and amended several times since, the AWA is administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and requires that all proposals to use animals be reviewed and approved by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). In addition, the AWA requires that animals be provided with adequate food, living space and veterinary attention. Facilities using any of the regulated animals submit annual reports and are inspected periodically and unannounced by the USDA.
The role of the IACUC, as defined by the AWA, is to review every research proposal involving animals and consider the design of each project as it affects the animal. The IACUC also oversees an institution’s animal program, facilities and procedures. The IACUC must include a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine with training or experience in laboratory animal science and medicine, an individual who is not affiliated with the institution in any other way and at least one additional member. Prior to receiving the approval of the IACUC, researchers must demonstrate that the most appropriate species has been selected and that the minimum number of animals needed to produce scientifically valid results will be used. For procedures having the potential to cause discomfort or pain, the researcher must justify the use of such methods and take all necessary steps to minimize the discomfort or pain. Such committees ensure that animals will be used humanely and responsibly to achieve valid scientific goals.
The Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, issued in 1985, requires the IACUC to review and approve all research using vertebrate animals that is funded by Public Health Service Agencies, including the National Institutes of Health. Furthermore, this policy sets forth the requirements that are applicable to all research, research training, biological testing and related activities involving animals that are supported or conducted by agencies of the PHS according to the standards set forth in the AWA and the PHS Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
To insure the highest standards of animal care, many laboratories in the U.S. are voluntarily evaluated and accredited by the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC), an organization that has been accrediting programs for institutions since 1965. AAALAC accreditation signifies that the research facilities are not only meeting the standards required by law, but are going the extra step to achieve excellence in animal well-being.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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