Ratio Between the Beneficial Dose and Toxic Dose
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Ratio Between the Beneficial Dose and Toxic Dose
How do toxicologists determine which exposures may harm? Toxicologists conduct basic research, using both whole animals and in vitro methods, to learn how various chemicals and dosages interact with living systems. Basic research is
necessary to understand mechanisms that maintain living organisms and to determine baselines for physiological processes. For many chemicals that enhance the quality of our lives, the mechanism that produces the beneficial effect is the
same mechanism that makes the chemical toxic. For example, aspirin reduces pain and fever by reducing the activity of enzymes in the body that normally increase production of compounds associated with pain and distress. However, acute
toxicity can occur when the aspirin dose is so high that inhibition of similar enzymes in the heart interferes with normal function. Animal studies help determine the ratio between the beneficial dose and the toxic dose of medications.
Toxicologists determine which levels of a substance cause harm by conducting safety studies which progress from the test tube to animal studies and, in some cases, to human trials. Safety testing is needed to identify the crossover points
between no impact, beneficial effects and harmful effects. For example, alcohol, when ingested, is taken directly into the bloodstream and blood levels rise in direct proportion to consumption. Many people enjoy the feeling produced by one
alcoholic beverage and may consider that a beneficial effect. However, one drink, such as 12 ounces of beer, will impact motor skills and judgment. Two such drinks in a short interval result in a blood alcohol content of .08% in a 120-pound
woman. Persons with levels above 0.08% ethanol in the bloodstream are considered too impaired to drive an automobile in many states. Further increases (above 0.4%) can lead to loss of consciousness and death.
Vitamins also illustrate the variation in effect depending upon the dose. Vitamins are essential elements that are not manufactured by the body and must be furnished from the outside, typically in the diet. In general, either vitamin deficiency or
vitamins in excess can affect health and even cause birth defects. Birth defects such as spinal bifida are less likely to occur if the mother has a daily vitamin A intake of 5000 IU in advance of the pregnancy. However, women using one
prescription treatment for acne that involves high doses (50,000 IU) of a form of this vitamin (isotretinoin) must take precautions to avoid pregnancy due to the risk of birth defects.
Safety evaluations establish a margin of safety to compensate for differences in response among individuals. For example, women in general are affected more by the same dose of alcohol than men are, not only because of smaller body size
but also because alcohol is processed at different rates by men and women. Persons of differing ethnic heritages also metabolize ethanol at different rates.
Toxicologists use in vitro methods and animal models that have been accepted by the scientific community and recognized by regulatory bodies so that people who use and are exposed to a variety of chemicals can enjoy the benefits with a
minimum of risk. Similarly, use of accepted tests protects other organisms, including pets and farm animals, as well as the environment.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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