NYU Social Cognitive Theory Model Discussion
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NYU Social Cognitive Theory Model Discussion
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Social Cognitive Theory Model (SCT) are learned behavioral habits from observation and social interaction. The models state that human behavior is influenced by three major behavioral constructs and they are
cognitive influences on behavior, environmental influences on behavior, and supporting behavioral factors (Glanz et al., 2015). Cognitive influences on behavior depicts the ability of processing information, then
applying the knowledge, and changing preferences. There are four factors that describe this influential behavior and they are self-efficacy, collective efficacy, outcome expectations, and knowledge. Self-efficacy
describes the confidence to perform a behavior due to the individuals’ mastery of experiences. Collective efficacy is the ability of a group working together to achieve an outcome through teamwork, shared goals,
and communication. Outcome expectations are the outcomes from positive or negative actions, such as having sex without condoms, which increases the negative consequences of STD. Lastly, knowledge is the
understanding of the risk that comes with the behavior and the benefits of certain health practices NYU Social Cognitive Theory Model Discussion(Glanz et al., 2015).
Environmental influences describe aspects that affect behaviors such as physical and social factors in the environment. There are four factors that describe this influential behavior and they are observational
learning, normative beliefs, social support, and barriers and opportunities. Observational learning is the act of learning a new behavior based on observation, such as role models, mass media, and celebrities.
Normative beliefs are behavioral aspects based on cultural norms and beliefs, along with providing intervention methods in correcting normative beliefs. Social support is the support and encouragement an
individual receives from their social network, such as offering to babysit for a mother who has a newborn. Lastly, Barriers and opportunities are social and physical elements that make behavior change harder or
easier to perform (Glanz et al., 2015). Supporting behavioral factors are actions that lead to health-enhancing to improve health or health-compromising which leads to poorer health. There are three factors that
describe this influential behavior and they are behavioral skills, intentions, and reinforcement and punishment. Behavioral skills are the abilities needed to achieve or perform a behavior such as playing sports to stay
fit and healthy. Intentions are the modifications of new or old behavior such as setting a goal and working towards it. Lastly, there are reinforcement and punishments which influence behaviors through the removal
and provision of rewards or punishment NYU Social Cognitive Theory Model Discussion(Glanz et al., 2015).
Youths within a school have this normative belief that smoking is suitable because they observe their peers smoking and nothing is happening to them. Therefore, intervention methods need to be enacted to prevent
adolescents from partaking in tobacco use. An example of this situation can be demonstrated by the SCT model. A research was done on influencing youths’ normative beliefs regarding smoking, such as grouping
the children into a classroom and asking them to express the cons and pros of smoking. With this method, it is possible that the children can see for themselves the detrimental effect of smoking. Therefore,
correcting any misconceptions and social norms regarding smoking (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) (Glanz et al., 2015). Therefore, SCT states that environmental influences, such as
normative belief can affect behavior through observation learning which is what the children did when they learned the pros and cons of smoking. Henceforth, this model is very appropriate and effective with the
example because the model works to correct normative beliefs’ misperception to change behavior and improve health (Glanz et al., 2015). Another model that is effective is the transtheoretical model because it is a
commonly used intervention method for smoking cessation by using its stages of change to alter behavioral change. The health belief model can also be used for this behavioral change because the models focus on
motivation and self-efficacy (Roberts et al., 2013).
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Roberts, J. N., Kerr, M. S., & Smith, S. (2012). Behavioral Interventions Associated with Smoking Cessation in the Treatment of Tobacco Use, Health Services Insights, 6, 79-85. Doi: 10.4137/HSI.S11092
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: Are port of the surgeon general. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Ofﬁce on Smoking and Health.
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NYU Social Cognitive Theory Model Discussion
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