Multipolar Pyramidal Shape Lab Report
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Biology Name tissue type be specific to cell.type for example epithelial tissue- simple squamous Describe the tissue according to the text including at least four defining characteristics of this specific type of tissue Identify the locations where this specific type of tissue is found Describe the function (s) of this specific tissue type Include 3 references on a works cute page and utilize in text citation within the report where these are required
34. Human Genetics Basic Mendelian Genetics & Biological Features Lab Report
Human Genetics Lab
Basic Mendelian genetics is inheritance of biological features that are controlled by a single locus (the specific location of a gene); therefore, in basic Mendelian genetics, the phenotype (physical trait) of an individual is controlled by a single genotype (gene that it carries). Most traits are not simple Mendelian (they are affected by multiple loci and the environment as well). Mendelian traits in humans include sickle-cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, Huntingtons disease, and cystic fibrosis. Today, you will be investigating your own phenotypes and possible genotypes and examining the relationship between genotype and phenotype for simple single-locus Mendelian genetics.
Why are we doing this lab?
To introduce you to basic Mendelian genetics.
To examine the relationship between your own phenotype and genotype.
Use chi square statistics to analyse genetics results.
Part 1: Use the following descriptions to fill out the table on the next page about yourself.
A. The ability to roll the tongue into a u-shape is dominant over the lack of this ability.
B. Having a widows peak (your hairline comes to a point in the center of your forehead) is the dominant phenotype. No widows peak (a straight hairline) is recessive.
C. A free, detached earlobe is the dominant phenotype. Attached earlobes are recessive.
D. Hitchhikers thumb (being able to bend your thumb joint backwards) is the recessive phenotype. No hitchhikers thumb (thumb can only bend back until it is straight) is dominant.
E. Bent little finger (the top joint of your little finger is bent towards your ring finger) is the dominant phenotype. A straight little finger is recessive.
F. Having any hair on your mid-digit (the middle section of your finger; between the section with your nail and the section where you wear a ring) is the dominant phenotype. No mid-digital hair is recessive.
G. Having dimples (of any size on one or both sides) is the dominant phenotype. No dimples is recessive.
H. Second toe longer than the big toe is dominant. Second toe shorter than the big toe is recessive.
I. The presence of freckles is dominant over the absence of freckles.
J. Short index finger means that your index finger is shorter than your ring finger. This may be a sex-influenced trait. In males, short index finger is dominant; in females, long index finger is dominant.
Table 1. Circle your genotype and calculate the class percentages of each phenotype.
Phenotypes Genotypes Class Percentages
1. Tongue rolling, not rolling A- aa
2. Widows peak, straight hairline B- bb
3. Earlobes free, attached C- cc
4. Straight thumb, hitchhikers thumb D- dd
5. Bent little finger, straight finger E- ee
6. Mid-digital hair, lacking F- ff
7. Dimples present, absent G- gg
8. Big toe shorter, longer H- hh
9. Freckles present, absent I- ii
10. Roman nose, straight nose J- jj
11. Curly, wavy, straight hair LL LL LL
12. Dark eyes, light eyes M- mm
13. Normal vision, red-green colorblind XN- XnXn XnY
1. Which dominant trait is the most common in our class?
2. Which dominant trait is the rarest in our class?
Part 2: In this exercise, you will pair up with another person in class and create two children.
Refer to Table 1 for your genotypes and your partners genotypes.
o If your genotype for a trait in Table 1 is A-, then record your genotype is heterozygous in Table 2. In other words, if you have the dominant phenotype, then assume you have the heterozygous genotype.
Record the alleles in the appropriate columns in Table 2.
Pass down an allele from each parent onto each child. For heterozygous genotypes, toss a coin to determine which allele gets passed on to the child.
Record the childs genotype and phenotype. Repeat for Child #2.
Table 2. Simulation on determining the genotypes and phenotypes of your children.
Trait Your Genotype Partners Genotype Child #1 Genotype Child #1 Phenotype Child #2 Genotype Child #2 Phenotype
/ Allele 1 (Heads) Allele 2 (Tails) Allele 1 (Heads) Allele 2 (Tails) / / / /
3. Why did you toss the coin to determine which allele was passed down to the child? (Hint: why didnt you just choose the allele or use a die?)
4. Based on phenotypes, does Child 1 resemble you or your partner more?
5. Based on phenotypes, does Child 2 resemble you or your partner more?
6. Are there any phenotypes that your child has but neither you nor your partner have? (For example, both parents have freckles but the child does not). If yes, which traits?
7. Explain how a child could have a phenotype that is absent from both parents?
8. Why is it more likely for non-dimpled parents to have all non-dimpled children than dimpled parents having all dimpled children?
Part 3: Chi square analysis in genetics crosses
You are conducting a study to determine if a recessive trait in fruit flies, double antenna, is passed from one generation to the next according to basic Mendelian inheritance patterns, from which you expect a 3:1 ratio of dominant to recessive phenotypes in the F2 generation. The data is shown in Table 3. Use a chi-square test to determine if the observed distribution of dominant and recessive phenotypes is significantly different than the expected ratio.
Table 3. Number of fruit flies with wild-type or double antenna phenotypes in the F2 generation.
Phenotype Wild-type Double Antenna
Number observed 94 46
9. What is the calculated chi square for the observed data? Refer to Lab 6 if necessary.
10. What is the degrees of freedom?
11. Is there a significant difference (p<0.05) between the expected and observed data? Use the critical chi square table below.
12. What do your chi square results indicate about the inheritance of antenna in fruit flies?
Table 4. Critical values of the chi square distribution with df degrees of freedom.
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