Lung Cancer and Smoking Case Study
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Here’s some information to assist you with questions on the last case study. Be sure to include all equations with your answers.
#4. Where else (besides a hospital) could cases be found? Where else might you find controls for this study (besides in a hospital)? Use Ch 6 to assist you in answering these.
#7. This question is asking if hospitalized patients (w/o lung cancer) are closely matched to the general population (w/o lung cancer). Explain your answer. (Hint: Look at the percentage you get for controls who smoked. Is this exposure level something you’d see [even back then] in the general population?)
#8. This question is mainly getting at this: Even if not as high as the cases (lung cancer pts), if the controls have a very high exposure level (smoking), then how might this affect the results for this case-control study (Odds Ratio)?
#9. Here’s the equation for proportion of cases who smoked: 1522/1530 x 100 = 99.48% Do the same for proportion of controls who smoked.
#11. The odds of smoking for the cases is: 1522/8 = 190.25:1 Do the same for the odds of smoking for the controls.
#12. Divide the odds to get the OR. You’re also asked to do the ‘cross-product ratio’. This is just another term for the equation you’ve used for the Odds Ratio from Ch. 6. Set up your 2×2 and see if you come up with the same OR from that equation. Post both equations and answers for this.
#14. You’ll end up with 4 Odds Ratios on this one. One for each dosage of cigarettes (1-14; 15-24; 25+; and ALL). These are NOT age categories; they are dosage (# of cigarettes smoked/day). Set up your 2×2 table for each category. Your ‘no exposure’ row (0 cigarettes) will be the same for all the 2×2 tables.
#15. Look at the 4 different ORs and note any differences by dosage. Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure and disease? #16. This question relates to things you learned in Ch. 10 that could affect the results of a study (like certain types of bias). Name some of the factors.
#18. The mortality rate in the cohort section is the ‘incidence rate’. The person-years is the population size. So, for the mortality rate for those who smoked 1-14 cigarettes (Table 3), you would take 23 / 38,600 x 1000. This gives you a mortality rate of 0.60/1000 person-years. #18. Rate Ratio is another term for Relative Risk. To find this, you would take the mortality rate among the exposed and divide by the mortality rate among the nonexposed. For the 1-14 cigarette group, this would be 0.60 divided by 0.07 (mortality rate among the nonexposed). #18. Rate Difference is the same as Risk Difference. For the 1-14 cigarette group, you would find this by subtracting 0.07 from 0.60 (incidence among exposed – incidence among the nonexposed).
#19. This proportion is called ‘attributable risk percent’ or the more recognized (from your book ~ Ch 9) term of ‘etiologic fraction’. Since there are two different equations you could use for EF, you would either use the mortality rate or the RR for ‘All Smokers’ from #18 in your equation.
#20. You’ll take the number of deaths among All Smokers (from Table 3) and multiply that by your answer for #19 (EF%). This is the number of deaths that could have been averted if no one had smoked.
#21. Since RR is the strongest measure of association, use those numbers to determine which disease has a stronger association with smoking. Use the AR% (EF) as your second reason. Explain your answer.
#22. Population attributable risk percent is the same as ‘population etiologic fraction’ (from Ch. 9). You would use the mortality rate for ‘All’ for these calculations (given in Table 4). There will be two equations for your answer (Lung Cancer & CVD) and don’t forget to answer the compare/differ questions, as well.
#23. Multiply your answers from #22 times the Mortality Rate for ‘ALL’ from Table 4. You’ll do this for both lung cancer and CVD. Your answers will be followed by “lung cancer (or CVD) deaths per 1000 person-years”.
#24. Use the RRs from Table 5 to help you in answering this question. Note the differences in RRs among Current Smokers, Ex-Smokers (by years since quitting), and Non-Smokers (never smoked). Then discuss what this implies for public health and preventive medicine. #26. Answer the first question as to which study design has the largest sample size, costs more, and takes longer to complete. The remaining factors are answered as advantage/disadvantage.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME] and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!
Tired of getting an average grade in all your school assignments, projects, essays, and homework? Try us today for all your academic schoolwork needs. We are among the most trusted and recognized professional writing services in the market.
We provide unique, original and plagiarism-free high quality academic, homework, assignments and essay submissions for all our clients. At our company, we capitalize on producing A+ Grades for all our clients and also ensure that you have smooth academic progress in all your school term and semesters.
High-quality academic submissions, A 100% plagiarism-free submission, Meet even the most urgent deadlines, Provide our services to you at the most competitive rates in the market, Give you free revisions until you meet your desired grades and Provide you with 24/7 customer support service via calls or live chats.