Earthquakes and Earthquake Hazards Exam Practice
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Physical Geology 111 Lab
Earthquakes and Earthquake Hazards
I. Introduction & Purpose:
The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to become successful at applying concepts and techniques of seismology for locating earthquake epicenters, measuring magnitudes, evaluating ground surface stability, measuring active faulting with aerial photography, and assessing seismic hazards.
Part I. Measuring and Analyzing a Virtual Earthquake’s Epicenter Location and Magnitude
A. Part I is a virtual courseware computer activity that will be accessed online over the Internet at the following website link:
These online activities are designed to help you learn the concepts and techniques for measuring and analyzing the location of earthquake epicenters and estimating earthquake magnitudes.
Before you begin the program, make sure that your computer system has the proper requirements to run the activities. This interactive online program consists of several components: 1) Images of earthquake destruction; 2) Tutorial; 3) Demonstrations; 4) Travel Time activity; and 5) Epicenter and Magnitude Activity. The online components that will be assessed and graded by me only include the Epicenter & Magnitude activities. However, it is very helpful to check out the demonstrations, tutorials, and travel time activity #4 prior to doing activity #5. You must successfully complete these exercises in order to receive a passing “certificate”. Note that you must save and make a copy out the completion certificate page before you quit the program OR have a copy emailed to yourself.
Again, make sure to save and make a copy of the “certificate” when you finish or have it sent to your email.
You will need to upload an image of the certificate with this lab.
B. Locate the distance of an Earthquake
A single earthquake produced the seismograms below at 3 different locations (Alaska, North Carolina, and Hawaii). Times have been standardized to Charlotte, North Carolina to simplify comparison. See if you can use these seismograms and a seismic-wave travel time curve to locate how far the epicenter is from these locations.
1. Estimate to the nearest tenth of a minute in the seismographs above, the times that P-waves and S-waves above first arrived at each seismic station. Then subtract P from S to get the S-minus-P time interval:
First P arrival First S arrival S-minus-P
2. Using the S-minus-P time intervals above, and the travel time graph below, determine the distance from the epicenter (in kilometers) for each seismic station.
a. Sitka, AK: ______________ km
b. Charlotte, NC: ______________ km
c. Honolulu, HI: _______________ km
Normally you would have to draw circles around each seismic station to determine where their circles intersect, which is the epicenter location for the earthquake. Since were online, you dont have to. Instead Im giving you the latitude and longitude location for the Earthquake.
The epicenter is located at 34° N latitude 118° W longitude.
3. Using the map above, what region/state is the earthquake located? What is the name of a major fault that occurs near this epicenter?
Part II. Earthquake Hazards
Why does ground shaking from an earthquake change so much with location?
How seismic waves shake the ground during an earthquake depends on the geologic layering. The figure below shows how an earthquake wave going through solid bedrock has high frequency and low amplitude. When the waves go through weaker material, they oscillate with higher amplitude but lower frequency. Imagine dropping a rock on concrete and recording the vibration compared to dropping a rock on a trampoline or a mattress. Water-saturated sediments are susceptible to liquefaction, which causes sediment to behave like quicksand. Liquefaction typically commonly occurs in regions near bodies of water or where the ground water table is very close to the surface.
A. San Francisco, California is located in a tectonically active region, so it occasionally experiences strong earthquakes. The map below shows the kinds of Earth materials upon which buildings have been constructed in a portion of San Francisco. These materials include hard compact Franciscan Sandstone, uncompacted beach and dune sands, river gravel, and artificial fill. The artificial fill is mostly debris from buildings destroyed in the great 1906 earthquake that reduced large portions of the city to blocks of rubble. Imagine that you have been hired by an insurance company to assess what risk there may be in buying newly constructed apartment buildings located at X, Y, and Z. Your job is to infer whether the risk of property damage during strong earthquakes is low (little or no damage expected) or high (damage can be expected).
1. Is the risk at location Xlow or high? Why?
2. Is the risk at location Ylow or high? Why?
3. Is the risk at location Z low or high? Why?
B. On October 17, 1989, just as Game 3 of the World Series was about to start in San Francisco, a strong earthquake occurred at Loma Prieta, California, and shook the entire San Francisco Bay area. Seismographs at locations X, Y, and Z (figure above) recorded the shaking, and the resulting seismograms are shown below. Earthquakes are recorded on the seismograms as deviations (vertical zigzags) from a flat, horizontal line. Thus notice that much more shaking occurred at location Y and Z than at location X.
1. The Loma Prieta earthquake caused no significant damage at location X, but there was moderate damage to buildings at location Y and severe damage at location Z. Explain how this damage report compares to your predictions of risk (Part IV. A)
2. The Loma Prieta earthquake shook the entire San Francisco Bay region. Yet, the seismograms show evidence that the earthquake had very different effects on properties located only 600 m apart. Explain how the kind of substrate (uncompacted vs. firm and compacted) on which buildings are constructed influences how much the buildings are shaken and damaged in an earthquake.
3. Imagine that you are a member of the San Francisco City Council. Name two actions that you could proposed to mitigate (decrease the probability of) future earthquake hazards such as the damage that occurred at locations Y and Z in the Loma Prieta earthquake.
Part III – Measuring and Analyzing Displacement on an Active Fault Using Aerial Photography
Part III is designed to familiarize you with how geologists investigate the movement of an active fault by examining aerial photographs and determining the following about the fault: 1) position and extent of the fault, 3) notable offset markers, 4) apparent direction of offset, and 5) amount of offset. Below is an aerial photograph of the San Andreas Fault (a tectonic plate boundary) at Wallace Creek, Carrizo Plain, southern California. Notice the fence line, small streams, and fine features of the landscape. Also notice that the figure shows a portion of the strike-slip San Andreas Fault, which is transform plate boundary separating the Pacific Plate from the North American Plate.
Question 1:How much has the San Andreas Fault offset the present-day channel of Wallace Creek.
Answer: ______________ meters
Question 2: What is the apparent lateral offset movement of Wallace Creek across the San Andreas Fault in this aerial image? Right-lateral or left-lateral?
Question 3: Notice the small dry valley in the lower-left part of the photograph. Infer how this valley may have formed.
Part IV – Earthquake Laboratory Reflection
Directions: Write a reflection of the lab activity, explaining its purpose, the methods used, the results obtained, and a brief personal reflection of what you enjoyed and learned about doing this lab.
1) What was the purpose of this lab? What did you actually discover and learn during this lab?
2) What did you enjoy most about this lab? Also, what was challenging or thought-provoking?
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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